Developing Countries Appendix

Developing Countries

Table 1 Capacity:

World Bank Low Income-Economies ($995 or less)

Country Global Human Capital Report: Know-How Subindex 2017Individuals Using the Internet (% of population) 2016Fixed-broadband Subscriptions Per 100 Inhabitants 2017Mobile-Cellular Telephone Subscriptions Per 100 Inhabitants 2017 Laboratories, University Programs, or Societies Dedicated to Artificial Intelligence Research and Development
Benin Score: 54.2
Rank: 52
12.0% 0.3 78.5 Atlantic Artificial Intelligence Laboratories
Ethiopia Score: 35.0
Rank: 130
15.4% 0.6 59.7 iCog Labs
Gambia Score: 51.0
Rank:72
18.5% No Data No Data No Information
Guinea Score: 39.0 Rank: 125 9.8% No Data No Data No Information
Haiti No Data  12.2% 0.3 59.1 No Information
Liberia Score: 46.0 Rank: 98 7.32% No Data No Data No Information
Madagascar Score: 39.4 Rank: 128 4.7% 0.1 34.1 Higher Polytechnic Institute of Madagascar – Information Systems and Artificial Intelligence Department
Nepal Score: 45.7 Rank: 100 19.7% No Data 123.2 Artificial Intelligence for Development (AID)
Senegal Score: 50.6 Rank: 76 25.7% 0.7 99.4 No Information
Tajikistan Score: 52.2 Rank: 61 20.5% No Data No Data TajRupt Artificial Intelligence Research Center (TAIRC)
Tanzania Score: 44.2 Rank: 109 13.0% 3.2 69.7 Tehamalab  
Uganda Score: 45.4 Rank: 102 21.9% 0.3 58.2 Makerere University’s Artificial Intelligence Research lab
Yemen Score: 38.4 Rank: 127 24.9% No Data No Data No Information
Zimbabwe No Data 23.1% 1.1 85.3 Zimbabwe Centre for High Performance Computing

World Bank Lower Middle- Income Economies ($996 to $3,895)

CountryGlobal Human Capital Report: Know-How Subindex 2017Individuals Using the Internet (% of population) 2016Fixed-broadband Subscriptions Per 100 Inhabitants 2017  Mobile-Cellular Telephone Subscriptions Per 100 Inhabitants 2017Laboratories, University Programs, or Societies Dedicated to Artificial Intelligence Research and Development
Bangladesh Score: 45.2 Rank: 104 18.3% 4.4 88.1 Bangladesh Robotics Foundation   United International University- Advanced Intelligent Multidisciplinary Systems Lab (AIMS Lab)
Bolivia Score: 40.3 Rank: 123 39.7% 3.2 99.2 No Information
Georgia No Data 59.3% 19.7 146.5 No Information
Ghana Score: 46.8 Rank: 95 34.7% 0.2 127.5 Google AI Lab Accra
Honduras Score: 45.1 Rank: 106 30.0% 2.5 88.9 No Information
India Score: 50.1 Rank: 79 29.6% 1.3 87.3 Special Interest Group on Artificial Intelligence, Computer Society of India
Indonesia Score: 50.1 Rank: 80 25.5% 2.3 173.8 Pulse Lab Jakarta
Morocco Score: 44.5 Rank: 108 95.2% 3.9 122.9 Rabat Information Technology Center  
Nicaragua Score: 39.6 Rank: 124 24.6% 3.4 131.6 No Information
Nigeria Score: 40.5 Rank: 122 25.7% 0.0 75.9 Artificial Intelligence Hub at the University of Lagos
Pakistan Score: 46.4 Rank: 96 15.5% 0.9 73.4 National Center of Artificial Intelligence
Philippines Score: 52.3 Rank: 60 55.5% 3.2 110.4 The Computer Vision and Machine Intelligence Laboratory at the University of the Philippines
Tunisia Score: 50.9 Rank: 73 49.6% 7.0 124.3 National Center of Artificial Intelligence within the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (Proposed)
Vietnam Score: 41.8 Rank: 120 46.5% 11.8 125.6 Topica AI Labs   FPT University added artificial intelligence teaching to its software engineering program

World Bank Upper-Middle Income Economies ($3,896 to $12,055)

CountryGlobal Human Capital Report: Know-How Subindex 2017Individuals Using the Internet (% of population) 2016Fixed-broadband Subscriptions Per 100 Inhabitants 2017  Mobile-Cellular Telephone Subscriptions Per 100 Inhabitants 2017 Laboratories, University Programs, or Societies Dedicated to Artificial Intelligence Research and Development
Armenia Score: 55.1 Rank: 4764.4%10.8119.0Foundation for Armenian Science and Technology
BrazilScore: 50.1 Rank: 8160.9%13.7113.0Brazilian Computer Society
ChinaScore: 58.0 Rank: 4453.2%26.9104.6Chinese Association for Artificial Intelligence Nanjing University of Science and Technology
ColombiaScore: 51.6 Rank: 6758.1%12.9126.8Centre for Excellence in Artificial Intelligence of Colombia
Equatorial GuineaNo Data23.8%No DataNo DataNo Information
EcuadorScore: 43.1 Rank: 11354.1%10.183.5No Information
Gabon Score: 42.7 Rank: 11548.1%0.7131.5No Information
JamaicaScore: 52.2 Rank: 6344.4%8.3107.0No Information
MalaysiaScore: 62.0 Rank: 2878.8%8.5133.9Center for Artificial Intelligence and Technology (CAIT)
MexicoScore: 54.9 Rank: 4859.5%13.388.5Mexican Artificial Intelligence Society
PeruScore: 42.3 Rank: 11945.5%7.2121.0‘El Puente’ Innovation Center
South AfricaScore: 48.7 Rank: 8654.0%3.0 162.0The Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research (CAIR) has nodes at five South African universities: the University of Cape Town, University of KwaZulu-Natal, North-West University, University of Pretoria and Stellenbosch University
RussiaScore: 58.1 Rank: 42 73.1%21.4157.9Russian Association for Artificial Intelligence
ThailandScore: 54.3 Rank: 5147.5%11.9 176.0 Asian Institute of Technology -Data Science and AI Chulalongkorn University – Robotics and Artificial Intelligence engineering

Notes:Global Human Capital Report: Know-How Subindex 2017 Know-how measures the breadth and depth of specialized skills use at work. It takes into account high and medium skilled employment share, economic complexity, and availability of skilled employees. Source: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Global_Human_Capital_Report_2017.pdf

ITU Individuals Using the Internet (% of population) 2016 Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development (2018) The State of Broadband: Broadband catalyzing sustainable development. https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-s/opb/pol/S-POL-BROADBAND.19-2018-PDF-E.pdf

ITU (2017) Country ICT Data: Percentage of Individuals Using the Internet. https://www.itu.int/en/ITUD/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx

ITU Fixed-broadband Subscriptions Per 100 Inhabitants 2017 ITU (2017) Country ICT Data: fixed-broadband subscriptions. https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx

Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development (2018) The State of Broadband: Broadband catalyzing sustainable development. https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-s/opb/pol/S-POL-BROADBAND.19-2018-PDF-E.pdf

ITU Mobile-Cellular Telephone Subscriptions Per 100 Inhabitants 2017 Source: Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development (2018) The State of Broadband: Broadband catalyzing sustainable development. https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-s/opb/pol/S-POL-BROADBAND.19-2018-PDF-E.pdf

ITU (2017) Country ICT Data: mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions, https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx

Table 2: Governance

World Bank Low Income-Economies ($995 or less)

CountryEconomist Democracy Index 2015Ease of Doing Business Global Score 2019
0= lowest
100 = best performance
Ease of Doing Business: Trading Across Borders Score 2019
0= lowest
100 = best
performance
Regulatory Governance Score (World Bank)
0 = worst performance
5 = best performance
Statistical Capacity Indicator
BeninHybrid Regime 51.4 68.9 1.5 73.3
EthiopiaAuthoritarian Regime 49.1 56.0 1.0 70.0
GambiaAuthoritarian Regime 51.7 67.8 1.3 63.3
GuineaAuthoritarian Regime 51.5 47.8 1.0 52.2
HaitiAuthoritarian Regime 38.5 76.9 0.0 36.7
LiberiaHybrid Regime  43.5 27.8 0.0 60.0
MadagascarHybrid Regime 48.9 60.9 2.5 56.7
NepalHybrid Regime 59.6 77.2 1.8 73.3
SenegalFlawed Democracy 54.2 60.9 1.3 76.7
TajikistanAuthoritarian Regime 57.1 59.1 2.8 77.8
TanzaniaHybrid Regime 53.6 20.2 1.0 77.1
UgandaHybrid Regime 57.1 66.7 3.3 74.5
YemenAuthoritarian Regime 32.4 0.0 0.0 44.5
ZimbabweAuthoritarian Regime 50.4 54.3 1.5 60.0

World Bank Lower Middle- Income Economies ($996 to $3,895)

CountryEconomist Democracy Index 2015Ease of Doing Business Global Score 2019
0= lowest
100 = best performance
Ease of Doing Business: Trading Across Borders Score 2019
0= lowest
100 = best performance
Regulatory Governance Score (World Bank)
0 = worst performance
5 = best performance
Statistical Capacity Indicator
BangladeshHybrid Regime 42.0 31.8 1.5 70.0
BoliviaHybrid Regime 50.3 71.6 3.0 67.8
GeorgiaHybrid Regime 83.3 90.0 3.8 86.7
GhanaFlawed Democracy 59.2 54.8 1.0 68.9
HondurasHybrid Regime 58.2 65.9 1.0 71.1
IndiaFlawed Democracy 67.2 77.5 3.5 91.1
IndonesiaFlawed Democracy 68.0 67.3 3.3 86.7
MoroccoHybrid Regime 71.0 83.6 4.0 76.6
NicaraguaHybrid Regime 55.6 77.0 2.5 68.9
NigeriaHybrid Regime 52.9 23.1 2.8 63.3
PakistanHybrid Regime 55.3 60.1 1.8 75.6
PhilippinesFlawed Democracy 57.7 69.9 2.8 82.2
TunisiaFlawed Democracy 66.1 70.5 2.5 62.2
VietnamAuthoritarian Regime 68.4 70.8 2.8 83.3

World Bank Upper-Middle Income Economies ($3,896 to $12,055)

CountryEconomist Democracy Index 2015Ease of Doing Business Global Score 2019
0= lowest
100 = best performance
Ease of Doing Business: Trading Across Borders Score 2019
0= lowest
100 = best performance
Regulatory Governance Score (World Bank)
0 = worst performance
5 = best performance
Statistical Capacity Indicator
ArmeniaHybrid Regime75.489.24.091.1
BrazilFlawed Democracy60.069.93.874.4
ChinaAuthoritarian Regime73.682.61.878.9
ColombiaFlawed Democracy69.261.84.388.9
Equatorial GuineaAuthoritarian Regime41.932.1No Data45.6
EcuadorHybrid Regime57.968.70.568.9
GabonAuthoritarian Regime45.643.90.536.7
JamaicaFlawed Democracy67.561.53.071.1
MalaysiaFlawed Democracy80.688.54.381.1
MexicoFlawed Democracy72.182.15.093.3
PeruHybrid Regime68.868.22.590.0
South AfricaFlawed Democracy66.059.64.075.6
RussiaAuthoritarian Regime77.471.14.883.3
ThailandHybrid Regime78.584.74.590.0

Notes:

The Economist: Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety Source: https://www.yabiladi.com/img/content/EIU-Democracy-Index-2015.pdf

World Bank: Ease of Doing Business Score 2019 This score benchmarks economies in relation to regulatory best practice, showing the distance to the best regulatory performance. It takes into account procedures, time, cost and minimum capital for starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, and enforcing contracts Source: http://www.doingbusiness.org/en/data/doing-business-score

Ease of Doing Business: Trading Across Borders Score 2019 This score measures regulatory performance by capturing the amount of time and cost required to import and export goods; the time, cost and judicial process needed to enforce contracts; the recovery rate and strength of insolvency Source: http://www.doingbusiness.org/en/data/doing-business-score

World Bank: Global Indicators of Regulatory Governance 2018 The Regulatory Governance Score measures the inclusiveness of regulatory rulemaking processes and how policymakers interact with stakeholders when shaping regulations. The score ranges from 0(worst performance) to 5 (best performance) and considers: publication of forward regulatory plans; consultation on proposed regulations; report back on the results of the consultation process; regulatory impact assessments; whether laws are made publicly accessible Source: http://rulemaking.worldbank.org/

World Bank Statistical Capacity Indicator 2017 This score assesses the capacity of a country’s statistical system. Countries are scored against 25 criteria in three categories -methodology, source data, and periodicity. The overall Statistical Capacity Indicator represents the average score within the categories Source: http://datatopics.worldbank.org/statisticalcapacity/Home.aspx

Table 3: Data Plans & Indicators

World Bank Low Income-Economies ($995 or less)

CountryAI PlanData Protection and Privacy LawsGlobal Open Data Index Score 2017Freedom in the World Aggregate Score 2018 0=Least Free 100=Most FreeFreedom on the Internet Aggregate Score 2018 0=Free 100=Least Free
Benin No Plan The organization of the protection of personal data Law (2009) No Data 82/ 100 No Data
Ethiopia No Plan No Legislation  No Data 12/100 83/100
Gambia No Plan Information and Communications Act (2009) No Data 41/100 55/100
Guinea No Plan No Legislation No Data 41/100 No Data
Haiti No Plan No Legislation No Data 41/100 No Data
Liberia No Plan No Legislation No Data 62/100 No Data
Madagascar No Plan The Protection of Personal Data Law (2014) No Data 56/100 No Data
Nepal No Plan Right to Information Act (2007) Score: 20%   Open: 0% 55/100 No Data
Senegal No Plan Law on the Protection of Personal Data (2008)   No Data 75/100 No Data
Tajikistan No Plan Law on the Protection of Information (2002) No Data 11/100 No Data
Tanzania No Plan No Legislation Score: 20%   Open: 0% 52/100 No Data
Uganda No Plan The Data Protection and Privacy Bill (2015) No Data 37/100 41/100
Yemen No Plan Law of the Right of Access to Information (2012) No Data 13/100 No Data
Zimbabwe No Plan Draft Data Protection Bill (2016) Score: 13%   Open: 0%   30/100 53/100

World Bank Lower Middle- Income Economies ($996 to $3,895)

CountryAI PlanData Protection and Privacy LawsGlobal Open Data Index Score 2017Freedom in the World Aggregate Score 2018 0=Least Free 100=Most FreeFreedom on the Internet Aggregate Score 2018 0=Free 100=Least Free
Bangladesh No Plan No Legislation Score: 25%   Open: 6% 45/100 51/100
Bolivia No Plan General Law on Telecommunications, Information and Communication Technologies (2011) Score: 30%   Open: 0% 67/100 No Data
Georgia No Plan Law of Georgia on Personal Data Protection (2012) No Data 64/100 25/100
Ghana No Plan Data Protection Act (2012) Score: 16%   Open: 0% 83/100 No Data
Honduras No Plan Draft Law on the Protection of Personal Data and Habeas Data (2015) No Data 46/100 No Data
India National AI Strategy (June 2018) Information Technology Act (2000) Score: 47%   Open: 13% 77/100 43/100
Indonesia No Plan Law of the Republic of Indonesia Concerning Electronic Information and Transactions (2008) Score: 25%   Open: 0% 64/100 46/100
Morocco No Plan Law No. 03-03 Regarding Anti-Terrorism (2003)   Law No. 09-08 on the Protection of Physical Persons Regarding the Processing of Personal Data (2009)   Access to Information Act (2018)   No Data 39/100 45/100
Nicaragua No Plan Personal Data Protection Law (2012) No Data 44/100 No Data
Nigeria No Plan Data Protection Bill (2011) No Data 50/100 No Data
Pakistan No Plan Electronic Data Protection Act (2005) Score: 19%   Open: 0% 43/100 73/100
Philippines No Plan Data Privacy Act (2012)   Score: 30%   Open: 0% 62/100 31/100
Tunisia The Secretary of State for Research has created a task force and a steering committee to develop a National AI Strategy for Tunisia. The plan is expected early 2019 Tunisia Law 63 on the Protection of Personal Data (2004) Score: 22%   Open: 0% 70/100 38/100
Vietnam No Plan Law on Protection of Consumers’ Rights (2010) No Data 20/100 76/100

World Bank Upper-Middle Income Economies ($3,896 to $12,055)

CountryAI PlanData Protection and Privacy LawsGlobal Open Data Index Score 2017Freedom in the World Aggregate Score 2018 0=Least Free 100=Most FreeFreedom on the Internet Aggregate Score 2018 0=Free 100=Least Free
ArmeniaNo Plan Law of the Republic of Armenia on the Protection of Personal Data (2015) No Data 45/100 27/100
Brazil No Plan Protection of Personal Data Bill (2011) Score: 60%   Open: 33%   78/100 31/100
China A Next Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan (July 2017) The Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Strengthening the Network Information Protection (2012) No Data 14/100 88/100
Colombia No Plan Habeas Data Act (2008)   Score: 64%   Open: 40% 65/100 31/100
Equatorial GuineaNo Plan Data Protection Law (2016) No Data 7/100 No Data
EcuadorNo PlanProtection of Privacy and Personal Data Bill (2016)No Data60/100 40/100
GabonNo PlanLaw on the Protection of Data (2011)No Data23/100No Data
JamaicaNo PlanNo LegislationScore: 26%
Open: 6%
77/100No Data
MalaysiaThe development of a National AI Framework for Malaysia was announced in October 2017, as an expansion of the National Big Data Analytics Framework -however, there have not been any updates given by the new government about the national AI framework. Personal Data Protection Act (2010)Score: 10%
Open: 0%
45/10045/100
MexicoTowards an AI Strategy in Mexico: Harnessing the AI Revolution (March 2018) -unclear if the new president will implement the strategy’s recommendations.Federal Law on the Protection of Personal Data in the Possession of Private Individuals (2010)Score: 65%
Open: 26%
62/100 40/100
PeruNo PlanPersonal Data Protection Act (2011)Score: 29%
Open: 0%
73/100No Data
South AfricaNo PlanProtection of Personal Information Act (2013)Score: 40%
Open: 0%
78/10025/100
RussiaAt a conference titled, “Artificial Intelligence: Problems & Solutions” in March 2018, the Ministry of Defense released 10 recommended policies. While none have been “officially” implemented, they do lay the foundation for a national AI strategy.Federal Law Regarding Personal Data (2006)Score: 43%
Open: 20%
20/10067/100
ThailandNo PlanPersonal Data Protection Bill (2011)Score: 34%
Open: 6%
31/10065/100

Notes:Artificial Intelligence Plans: https://medium.com/politics-ai/an-overview-of-national-ai-strategies-2a70ec6edfd

Data Protection Laws: https://unctad.org/en/Pages/DTL/STI_and_ICTs/ICT4D-Legislation/eCom-Data-Protection-Laws.aspxhttp://menadata.net/public/dataset/81539516969

Global Open Data Index Score 2017: https://index.okfn.org/

Freedom in the World Aggregate Score 2018: https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/freedom-world-2018

Freedom on the Internet Aggregate Score 2018: https://freedomhouse.org/report/countries-net-freedom-2018